What Is Iridology?

left_eyeIridology, also called iris analysis or iris diagnosis, is the study of the iris (the colored part of the eye). Iris “readings” are made by iridologists to assess a person’s health picture (physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual) and guide them to take measures to improve their health.

Iridology is generally based on the concept of neural pathways between the body and the iris. Although iridologists may differ on the exact mechanism, most maintain that the iris reflects what is happening throughout the body via nerve conduction from all parts of the body to the eye. The client’s health is assessed by the iridologist, who interprets patterns, shapes, rings, colors and pigmentation markings, fibers, structures, and changes in the pupil and iris. Many iridologists also use sclerology (reading the lines in the white part of the eyes) in their health evaluation.

iridology readings are typically performed by such holistically oriented practitioners as naturopaths, chiropractors, or nutritionists. The reading may be done using a bright light, a magnifying glass, and a notepad. The iridologist may also use various tools to better view the eye, a special camera to take pictures of the iris, and/or a computer.

Iridologists conduct their readings using charts on which each area of the iris is mapped to a specific body system or organ. iridology charts vary, with at least 20 different ones in existence. Some charts are more widely used than others; however, many iridologists believe that there is more than one correct map and that each practitioner should become familiar with several charts. Some iridologists even develop their own charts. Differences also exist among practitioner techniques; among American, European, and other approaches; and in the interpretation of specific iris signs.

right_eyeIridology charts divide the iris into numerous zones corresponding to different parts of the body. Although the specifics may differ on each chart, all share a general pattern. The left eye is mapped to the left side of the body and the right eye to the right side. The top of the eye is mapped to the upper body (e.g., brain, face, neck, chest and heart). The center of the eye is mapped to the stomach and digestive organs, with other organs being represented by concentric circular zones moving outward toward the edge of the iris. The bottom of the eye is mapped to the legs and lower half of body. Paired organs (e.g., the kidneys) are mapped to both irises.

Using a holistic approach that considers each client as an individual with unique health patterns and concerns, behaviors, and experiences, the iridologist will examine the eyes and make a health assessment. Based on the results of that reading, the iridologist generally recommends a wellness program tailored to the individual’s physical, emotional, and life situation. This program may incorporate various health improvement, maintenance, and prevention regimes. Recommendations may include vitamins, minerals, herbs, supplements, and/or diet and nutrition, among other suggestions.

History Of Iridiology

iris_signs1The basic concept of iridology has existed for centuries. The medical school of the University of Salerno in Italy offered training in iris diagnosis. A book published by Philippus Meyers in 1670, called Chiromatica medica, noted that signs in the iris indicate diseases. Dr. Ignatz von Peczely, however, is generally considered the father of iridology, with the date of his discovery given as 1861. Von Peczely was a Hungarian physician. As a child, he accidentally broke an owl’s leg. He observed that a black line formed in the owl’s lower iris at the time of the injury. After the owl’s leg healed, the young von Peczely noted that the black streak had changed appearance. As a physician, he treated a patient with a broken leg in whose eye he observed a black streak in the same location as on the injured owl’s iris. Von Peczely became intrigued by the possibility of a connection between diseases and eye markings. Through observing his patients’ eyes, he became convinced of this connection and developed a chart that mapped iris-body correlations. After several decades of comparative study, von Peczely mapped organs across zones identified by hours and minutes on a clock face superimposed over drawings of the eyes. In 1881, he published his theories in a book called Discoveries in the Field of Natural Science and Medicine: Instruction in the Study of Diagnosis from the Eye.

A Swedish pastor and homeopath named Nils Liljequist also developed the concept of iris-body correlations at roughly the same time but independently of von Peczely’s work. He was the first iridologist to identify the effects of such drugs as iodine and quinine on the iris. Liljequist based his initial observations on changes in his own irises after illnesses and injuries, publishing writings and eye drawings during the late nineteenth century. One of his students, Dr. Henry Lahn, brought the practice of iridology to the United States. A variety of practitioners, primarily European, have sought to popularize iridology since these early works. Dr. Bernard Jensen, a chiropractor, is the best-known contemporary American advocate of iridology.

Benefits Of Iridology

iris_signs2Iridologists claim that by studying the patterns of a person’s iris, they can provide helpful and accurate health and wellness information. iridology is a holistic endeavor in that it addresses the person’s whole being in the reading. The range of information gleaned encompasses physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual aspects of the person’s health picture. In addition to assessing the person’s general level of health, readings can reveal other data, including energy quotients; internal areas of irritation, degeneration, injury, or inflammation; nutritional and chemical imbalances; accumulation of toxins; life transitions; and subconscious tensions. Iridologists maintain that the eyes reveal information about the person’s physical and emotional constitution, such as inherited weaknesses and risks to which the person may be prone. Strengths may also be revealed, including inherited emotional tendencies from which the person derives particular talents. Cleansing and healing can be verified by changes in the iris. By looking for certain signs such as healing lines, iridologists obtain information about previous health problems and injuries and discover what may have gone wrong in the person’s past.

An iridology reading reflects the causes of problems, not symptoms. It may, iridologists claim, reveal that organs or systems are overstressed or predisposed to disease before clinical symptoms even develop. By predicting future problems, iridology can be used as a preventive tool. People can use the information from iridology readings to improve their health and make better behavioral choices in the future, thereby heading off problems before they occur.

In North America, iridology is generally considered to be an assessment tool to be used in cooperation with other health specialties. iridology is not a diagnostic tool (although it is more likely to be considered so by European iridologists) and should not be used to diagnose or name specific diseases. Not only would diagnosis represent an improper application of iridology according to many iridologists, as noted by the International iridology Research Association (IIRA), it could also be construed in many countries as practicing medicine without a license.


What Is Reflexology?

hand1hand2Reflexology is a therapeutic method of relieving pain by stimulating predefined pressure points on the feet and hands. This controlled pressure alleviates the source of the discomfort. In the absence of any particular malady or abnormality, reflexology may be as effective for promoting good health and for preventing illness as it may be for relieving symptoms of stress, injury, and illness.

In a typical reflexology treatment, the therapist and patient have a preliminary discussion prior to therapy, to enable the therapist to focus more accurately on the patient’s specific complaints and to determine the appropriate pressure points for treatment.

A reflexology session involves pressure treatment that is most commonly administered in foot therapy sessions of approximately 40-45 minutes in duration. The foot therapy may be followed by a brief 15-minute hand therapy session. No artificial devices or special equipment are associated with this therapy. The human hand is the primary tool used in reflexology. The therapist applies controlled pressure with the thumb and forefinger, generally working toward the heel of the foot or the outer palm of the hand. Most reflexologists apply pressure with their thumbs bent; however, some also use simple implements, such as the eraser end of a pencil. Reflexology therapy is not massage, and it is not a substitute for medical treatment.

Reflexology is a complex system that identifies and addresses the mass of 7,000 nerve endings that are contained in the foot. Additional reflexology addresses the nerves that are located in the hand. This is a completely natural therapy that affords relief without the use of drugs. The Reflexology Association of America (RAA) formally discourages the use of oils or other preparations in performing this hands-on therapy.

Reflexologists work from maps of predefined pressure points that are located on the hands and feet. These pressure points are reputed to connect directly through the nervous system and affect the bodily organs and glands. The reflexologist manipulates the pressure points according to specific techniques of reflexology therapy. By means of this touching therapy, any part of the body that is the source of pain, illness, or potential debility can be strengthened through the application of pressure at the respective foot or hand location.

History Of Reflexology

foot1Reflexology is a healing art of ancient origin. Although its origins are not well documented, there are reliefs on the walls of a Sixth Dynasty Egyptian tomb (c. 2450 B.C.) that depict two seated men receiving massage on their hands and feet. From Egypt, the practice may have entered the Western world during the conquests of the Roman Empire. The concepts of reflexology have also been traced to pre-dynastic China (possibly as early as 3000 B.C.) and to ancient Indian medicine. The Inca civilization may have subscribed to the theories of reflexology and passed on the practice of this treatment to the Native Americans in the territories that eventually entered the United States.

In recent times, Sir Henry Head first investigated the concepts underlying reflexology in England in the 1890s. Therapists in Germany and Russia were researching similar notions at approximately the same time, although with a different focus. Less than two decades later, a physician named William H. Fitzgerald presented a similar concept that he called zone analgesia or zone therapy. Fitzgerald’s zone analgesia was a method of relieving pain through the application of pressure to specific locations throughout the entire body. Fitzgerald divided the body into 10 vertical zones, five on each side, that extended from the head to the fingertips and toes, and from front toback. Every aspect of the human body appears in one of these 10 zones, and each zone has a reflex area on the hands and feet. Fitzgerald and his colleague, Dr. Edwin Bowers, demonstrated that by applying pressure on one area of the body, they could anesthetize or reduce pain in a corresponding part. In 1917, Fitzgerald and Bowers published Relieving Pain at Home, an explanation of zone therapy.

foot2Later, in the 1930s, a physical therapist, Eunice D. Ingham, explored the direction of the therapy and made the startling discovery that pressure points on the human foot were situated in a mirror image of the corresponding organs of the body with which the respective pressure points were associated. Ingham documented her findings, which formed the basis of reflexology, in Stories the Feet Can Tell, published in 1938. Although Ingham’s work in reflexology was inaccurately described as zone therapy by some, there are differences between the two therapies of pressure analgesia. Among the more marked differences, reflexology defines a precise correlation between pressure points and afflicted areas of the body. Furthermore, Ingham divided each foot and hand into 12 respective pressure zones, in contrast to the 10 vertical divisions that encompass the entire body in Fitzgerald’s zone therapy.

In 1968 two siblings, Dwight Byers and Eusebia Messenger, established the National Institute of Reflexology. By the early 1970s the institute had grown and was renamed the International Institute of Reflexology®.

Benefits Of Reflexology

foot3Reflexology promotes healing by stimulating the nerves in the body and encouraging the flow of blood. In the process, reflexology not only quells the sensation of pain, but relieves the source of the pain as well.

Anecdotally, reflexologists claim success in the treatment of a variety of conditions and injuries. One condition is fibromyalgia. People with this disease are encouraged to undergo reflexology therapy to alleviate any of a number of chronic bowel syndromes associated with the condition. Frequent brief sessions of reflexology therapy are also recommended as an alternative to drug therapy for controlling the muscle pain associated with fibromyalgia and for relieving difficult breathing caused by tightness in the muscles of the patient’s neck and throat.

Reflexology applied properly can alleviate allergy symptoms, as well as stress, back pain, and chronic fatigue. The techniques of reflexology can be performed conveniently on the hand in situations where a session on the feet is not practical, although the effectiveness of limited hand therapy is less pronounced than with the foot pressure therapy.


Some Common Vitamins & Minerals



Functions: Essential to membrane tissue and resistance to infections in sinuses, lungs, air passages, gastro-intestinal tract, vagina and eyes; prevents night blindness, sensitivity to light; promotes growth, vitality, appetite and digestion; helps prevent aging and senility; helps counteract damaging affects of air pollution.

Signs of Deficiency: Cystitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, gastritis; loss of appetite, retarded growth, eye problems-night blindness, red eyes, bad vision; defective teeth; dry, scaly skin, psoriasis, acne, wrinkles, pimples.

Sources: Dark green leafy vegetables, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables; such as carrots, yams, cantaloupes, apricots, whole grains, especially wheat, rice and oats, seeds, nuts and sprouts.


Functions: Essential for good collagen, the “glue” that holds the cells together; necessary for vital functions of all organs and glands, especially adrenals, thymus and thyroid; protects against all stress (physical and mental), toxic chemicals in food, air and water, drugs and such poisons as rattlesnake bit and bee sting; acts as natural antibiotic and general protector against toxic metals, as cadmium, lead, mercury; essential for oxygen metabolism and for healthy teeth and gums; promotes leucocytic and phagocytic activity.

Signs of Deficiency: Soft, bleeding gums, decaying teeth, spontaneous bruising and purpura, lowered resistance to all infections and the toxicity of drugs and airborne poisons; skin hemorrhages, nose bleed, anemia, toxic thyroid, premature aging, physical weakness, rapid breathing and heart beat; reduced adrenal secretions; tendency to ulcers, stomach and duodenal. Absence of Vitamin C causes scurvy.

Sources: All raw fruits and vegetables, especially red bell peppers, tomatoes, rose hips, citrus fruits, acerola cherries, green leafy vegetables and sprouts.


Functions: Essential for the utilization of calcium and other metals by the digestive tract; necessary for proper function of thyroid and parathyroid glands; assures proper formation of bones and teeth in children.

Signs of Deficiency: Rickets, tooth decay, pyorrhea, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, retarded growth, muscular weakness, low energy, lack of mineral assimilation and premature aging.

Sources: Exposure of uncovered skin to the sun whose rays change the ergosterol in the skin into Vitamin D, fish liver oils, raw milk, egg yolks, sprouted seeds, wheat grass juice, mushrooms.


Functions: Provides oxygen to tissues and cells; improves circulation; prevents and reduces scar tissue from burns, surgery and sores; retards aging; lessens menopausal disorders; essential for the health of reproductive organs; serves as an anti-coagulant; prevents death from blood clot; aids circulation; shields lungs and other respiratory organs from air pollution; necessary for treatment and prevention of arthritis, heart disease, burns, asthma, phlebitis, emphysema, varicose veins, leg ulcers, bed sores and a host of other problems; prevents calcium deposits on blood vessel walls; loss of mortality of eye lens; aids in lessening arterial hypertension.

Signs of Deficiency: Degeneration of coronary system, heart disease, strokes, pulmonary embolism, sterility, pains in muscles, nerve system; eye and cerebral hemorrhage; dermatitis, eczema; fragility of red blood cells.

Sources: All raw and sprouted seeds and cereal grains, legumes seeds, especially flax and nuts; wheat germ if it is no more than 3 or 4 days old. (Older, rancid germ contains no vitamin E); eggs, dark green leafy vegetables.


Functions: Helps to prevent heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol; necessary for function of adrenal and other glands; promotes growth, healthy skin and mucous membranes. Helps in making calcium and phosphorus available to cells, and in protecting from radiation.

Signs of Deficiency: Skin problems as eczema, dry skin, acne, fatigue, retarded growth, prostate and menstrual disorders; falling hair, gallstones, constipation, friability of bones (especially in the elderly).

Sources: Unrefined, unprocessed vegetable oils such as flax seed oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, safflower oil and corn oil. Avocado is also a good source of oil.


Functions: Growth and development factor; essential to proper calcium utilization and formation of erythrocytes.

Signs of Deficiency: Calcium deposits as cataracts of the eye; underdevelopment, anemia, pellagra.

Sources: Brewer’s yeast, eggs, cereal germ.


Functions: Vital for blood clotting and liver function. Called the anti-hemorrhaging vitamin, it also aids in vitality and longevity.

Signs of Deficiency: Hemorrhaging anywhere in the body; premature aging and low energy.

Sources: Seeds, sprouts, raw milk, egg yolks, alfalfa, kelp. Friendly bacteria in healthy intestines will synthesize Vitamin K.


Functions: Helps in correction of nutritional anemia and hemophilia and in forming blood platelets; helps improve failing memory.

Sources: Sesame seeds, raw and sprouted, sesame seed butter, some seed oils and raw egg yolks.



Functions: Vital for all muscle and activity of the body; needed for building and maintenance of bones, for normal growth, heart action, blood clotting; essential for normal pregnancy and lactation, for phosphorus, Vitamins A, C and D utilization, must be present for magnesium to be utilized. There needs to be a balance between calcium and magnesium for both to be used normally by the body.

Signs of Deficiency: Fragile, porous bones, heart problems; insomnia, tooth decay, nervousness and irritability, poor growth, muscle spasms, cramps, and rickets.

Sources: Sesame seeds (more than in milk), egg yolk, milk and milk products, dark green leafy vegetables such as dandelion, Romaine, spinach, kale, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, kelp and sea plants. (Excessive intake of animal protein will cause calcium loss.)


Functions: Aids liver in detoxifying the body; necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid, which is used in the stomach for digestion of proteins.

Signs of Deficiency: Disturbance of levels of fluids in the body; indigestion and poor assimilation of foods.

Sources: Kelp, dulse and other sea plants, dark green leafy vegetables, avocado, oats, asparagus, tomatoes, sea.


Functions: Necessary for utilization of sugars: involved with activity of hormones and enzymes; aids in metabolism of cholesterol; identified as glucose tolerance factor; helps regulate serum cholesterol.

Signs of Deficiency: Diabetes, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and/or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), heart disease, hardening of the arteries, high serum cholesterol.

Sources: Whole cereal grains (preferably sprouted), brewer’s yeast, raw sugar cane, mushrooms and liver.


Functions: Combines in hemoglobin-type molecule to synthesize Vitamin B-12; essential for the formation of hemoglobin.

Signs of Deficiency: Pernicious anemia

Sources: Comfy, alfalfa, liver, some green leafy vegetables.


Functions: Essential for the absorption of Iron; helps in development of nerves, bones, connective tissues and brain; aids protein metabolism, maintaining hair color; essential for RNA production.

Signs of Deficiency: Anemia, heart and digestive problems graying of hair, respiration difficulty and hair loss.

Sources: Found in such iron-rich foods as legumes (peas, beans, etc.), leafy green vegetables, whole grains and their sprouts, almonds, raisins, prunes and liver.


Functions: Useful against infections; necessary in formation of healthy bones and teeth; too much, as in fluoridated water, is toxic and causes brown spots on teeth.

Signs of Deficiency: Weakened tooth enamel and calcium deficient bones.

Sources: Whole grain oats, seeds, carrots, green vegetables, almonds, milk, vegetable tops (especially beets).


Functions: Essential for the health and function of the thyroid gland which regulates much of the body’s activity, both mental and physical, regulates energy, body weight and metabolism, helps maintain healthy skin.

Sign of Deficiency: Enlargement of thyroid gland and goiter; fatigue, loss of sexual interest, anemia, overweight, altered pulse rate, low blood pressure, heart disease and high cholesterol.

Sources: Dulse, Kelp, and other sea plants; green leafy vegetables and green tops of root vegetables (i.e. turnips and beets), pineapples, citrus fruits, watercress, seas food, fish liver oils and egg yolks.


Functions: Necessary for formation of red blood cells (hemoglobin) which transport oxygen to each and every bodycell. Good quality hemoglobin provides resistance to disease and stress.

Signs of Deficiency: Anemia, weakness, headaches, pale skin, shortness of breath, difficulty in concentrating, lack of interest and vigor, apathy towards sex.

Sources: Brewer’s yeast, blackstrap molasses, raisins, prunes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, sea plants, sprouts, liver, egg yolks, alfalfa, green leafy vegetables and legumes.


Functions: Involved with the involuntary nervous system; aids in metabolism of sodium and its transference to muscles and nerves.

Signs of Deficiency: Mental and nerve problems, especially paranoia and/or schizophrenia

Sources: Seawater, kelp and some mineral waters.


Functions: Essential for enzyme activity; aids in the body’s use of the B vitamin and vitamin E, fats and other minerals, especially calcium; helps provide good bones and muscle tone; contributes to a healthy heart; balances acid alkaline condition of the body; helps prevent build-up of cholesterol; necessary for normal, healthy heart functions.

Signs of Deficiency: Muscle cramps, kidney stones and damage, heart attacks, atherosclerosis, disorientation and nervousness, epilepsia and faulty protein utilization. A prolonged deficiency causes the body to lose calcium and potassium, creating a deficiency in those and other metals; involved in protein synthesis.

Sources: Sesame, sunflower, pumpkinseeds, nuts (especially almonds), and whole grains, green leafy vegetables.


Functions: Vital to enzymes involved with the utilization of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; aids in reproduction; involved with nourishment and coordination responses between brain, muscles and nerves; with the help of choline, aids in digestion and absorption of fats.

Signs of Deficiency: Digestive problems, asthma, poor balance, sterility, bone deformity and abnormal growth.

Sources: All dark green leafy vegetables, apricots, oranges, blueberries, the outer cost of grains (bran) and nuts, legumes, raw egg yolk, kelp and sea plants.


Functions: Helps prevent copper poisoning (cases of copper poisoning have greatly increased since copper tubing for bathrooms and kitchens began replacing conventional iron pipes): works together with some enzymes in the oxidation process; necessary for carbohydrate metabolism.

Signs of Deficiency: Where molybedum is lacking in the soil, the land is barren,” says Dr. Carl C. Pfeiffer in a trace of molybedum. From what is known to date, it seems entirely possible that sexual impotency, dental caries and cancer of the esophagus may be signs of molybedum deficiency.

Sources: (In order of percentages found in foods). Whole buckwheat, Lima beans, fresh wheat germ, soybeans, barley, lentils, oats, sunflower seeds, whole grain rye.


Functions: Works in conjunction with calcium, in correct balance, for formation and maintenance of teeth and bones; essential for normal mental and nerve activities; major involvement with acid-alkaline balance of tissues and blood, and also carbohydrate metabolism.

Signs of Deficiency: Weakness, reduced sexual desire, retarded growth, poor bone mineralization, lowered brain and nerve performance.

Sources: Nuts, seeds, whole grains, legumes, sprouts, dairy products, dried fruits, egg yolks and fish.


Functions: Prevents overacidity by acting as agent to keep acid-alkaline balance in tissues and blood; necessary for muscle contraction; since the heart is muscle, potassium is essential to proper heart function, especially the heart beat; necessary for normal nervous system; stimulates endocrine and other hormone production, aids kidneys to detoxify blood. There must be proper balance between potassium and sodium (salt) for both to function normally.

Signs of Deficiency: Edema, sodium poisoning, high blood pressure and heart disease and/or failure; low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), weakness exhaustion, mental and nervous problems and constipation.

Sources: Vegetables (particularly dark green leafy ones), nuts, seeds (sunflower and pumpkin), oranges, bananas and potatoes with peelings.


Functions: Has role similar to Vitamin E as anti-oxidant; helps conserve the body’s use of that vitamin; protects hemoglobin in red blood cells from oxidation damage; protects against mercury poisoning; helps to prohibit cancer cell proliferation; slows the aging process.

Signs of Deficiency: Premature aging, liver malfunction, muscle atrophy.

Sources: Brewer’s yeast, kelp, sea plants, whole cereal grains, organically grown vegetables and fruits.


Functions: Necessary for strong bones, teeth and nails and good hair growth; aids in protecting the healing body against skin problems and irritations in membranes.

Signs of deficiency: Thinning hair, wrinkles, brittle, fingernails, osteoporosis, insomnia

Sources: Sprouts (especially alfalfa), kelp, young green plants, strawberries, grapes, beets, almonds, sunflower seeds, and steelcut oats (fresh).


Functions: Sodium, potassium and chlorine maintain osmatic pressure necessary for the absorption of nutrients from intestines into the blood; they maintain body fluids at normal levels; they change into electrically charged ions which transport nerve impulses; sodium must be present for hydrochloric acid production in the stomach; necessary for other glandular secretions.

Signs of Deficiency: Although sodium deficiencies are infrequent, they can result from prolonged ingestion of diuretics, excessive perspiration or chronic diarrhea which may cause weakness, heat prostration, nausea, apathy, breathing problems.


Functions: Essential for beautiful hair, nails and skin, hence called the “beauty mineral”. Helps in conserving oxygen in cells.

Signs of Deficiency: Eczema, blemishes, rashes of the skin; brittle nails and hair, problems in joints.

Sources: Watercress, horseradish, celery, onion, turnip, nasturtium, fish, and soybeans.


Functions: Vital for synthesis of DNA and RNA and body protein; along with insulin, aids in carbohydrate and energy metabolism; helps the healing of wounds and burns; aids in ridding the body of carbon dioxide; vital in normal growth and tissue respiration, and especially reproductive organs.

Signs of Deficiency: Underdeveloped sexual organs, enlargement of prostate gland, birth defects, retarded growth, subnormal sex activity, low resistance to infections, sterility, slow healing of skin diseases, cuts and burns, hair loss, apathy, dandruff.

Sources: Sprouted and fermented seeds and grains as in the seed cheeses an Essene breads. Zinc in seeds and grains, “locked” in by phytin, is “unlocked” in sprouting and/ or fermenting. Also found in natural seeds (especially pumpkin), brewer’s yeast, raw milk, eggs, oysters (highest known source), green leafy vegetables, herring and nuts.


Synthetic Hormones: Estrogen-Laced Food

When U.S. and Canada beef cattle go to feedlots, hormone pellets are implanted under the ear skin, a process that is repeated at the midpoint of their 100-day fattening period. The hormones increase the weight of the cattle, adding to profits about $80 per animal.

The most common hormone in current use is estradiol, a potent cancer-causing and gene-damaging estrogen. The FDA maintains that residues of estradiol and other hormones in meat are within “normal” levels, and has waived any requirements for monitoring and chemical testing.

Europe, however, has, rightly eyed U.S. claims with great skepticism and since 1989 the European Union has forbidden the sale of beef from hormone-treated cattle. The opening of global markets has placed that ban under attack.

On Feb. 17, a panel of World Trade Organization judges began closed hearings on a U.S. and Canadian challenge charging that the European ban is merely protectionist and is costing North America $100 million a year in lost exports.

The FDA’s claims of safety were endorsed by a 1987 report of two U.N. bodies, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health organization, an endorsement that is the main basis of the U.S. and Canadian action against Europe. The joint committee that prepared the report, however, has minimal expertise in public health and high representation of veterinary scientist and senior FDA and U.S. Department of Agriculture officials. Relying heavily on unpublished industry information and outdated scientific citations, the committee claimed that hormone residues in legally implanted cattle are so low that eating treated meat could not possibly induce any hormonal or carcinogenic effects.

However, confidential industry reports to the FDA, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, reveal high hormone residues in meat products even under ideal test conditions. Following a single ear implant in steers of Synovex-S, a combination of estradiol and progesterone, estradiol levels in different meat products were up to 20-fold higher than normal. The amount of estradiol in two hamburgers eaten in one day by an 8-year-old boy could increase his total hormone levels by as much as 10% based on conservative assumptions, because young children have very low natural hormone levels.

“These hormones are linked ever more closely to the escalating incidence of reproductive cancers. In the U.S. since 1950- 55% for breast cancer, 120% for testicular cancer and 190% for prostate cancer.”

In real life, the situation may be much worse. An unpublicized random USDA survey of 32 large feedlots found that as many as half the cattle had visible illegal “misplaced implants” in muscle, rather than under ear skin. This would be result in very high local concentrations of hormones, and also elevated levels in muscle meat at distant sites, such abuse is very hard to detect.

Responding to European concerns, the USDA recently claimed that, based on standard residue monitoring programs, drug levels in violation of regulations have not been detected in meat products. However, of 130 million livestock commercially slaughtered in 1993, not one was tested for estradiol or any related hormone.

The question we ought to be asking is not why Europe won’t buy our hormone- treated cattle to be sold to American and Canadian consumers. Untreated meat is currently hard to find and expensive; if it were widely produced and available, the price would come down. At the least, meat produced from hormonetreated animals should be explicitly labeled.

These hormones are linked ever more closely to the escalating incidence of reproductive cancers in the U.S. since 1950-55% for breast cancer, 120% for prostate cancer. The endocrine-disruptive effects of estrogenic pesticides and other industrial food contaminants known as xenoestrogens are now under intensive investigation by federal regulatory and health agencies. But the contamination of meat with residues of the far-more-potent estradiol remains ignored.

The world trade judges ought to listen to one of the top FDA officials involved in meat safety, David Livingston. In Orville Schell’s 1984 book titled,” Modern Meat”, he exposes the meat industry. Livingston is quoted as saying, “Well, if you’re going to have enough inexpensive meat for everyone, you’re going to have to use some of these drugs. But personally, I’d rather eat meat that was raised without them.” In other words, what’s good enough for the rest of us is not something he wants to eat.


What Are Food Allergies?

One man’s food is another man’s poison. This is especially true of food allergy or sensitivity. Food allergy or sensitivity is one of the most confusing and frustrating causes of illness. The symptoms it produces are so different from one person to another.

Allergies tend to run in families. If one parent is allergic, their children have a fifty- percent chance of developing food allergies. If both parents have allergies, a child has a 75% probability of having food allergies.

But what is an allergy? It is an abnormal reaction to a generally harmless substance, which occurs, in a predisposed person. It is caused by an antigen (allergen) or substance, which produces an allergic reaction. When a person with an allergy is exposed to an allergen the body responds by producing antibodies. In order for an allergic reaction to occur, the body must produce enough antibodies. An allergic reaction results in the release of histamine and other chemicals causing the various allergic symptoms. The same allergen may produce diverse symptoms in different people. For example, a milk allergy may produce constipation, nasal congestion, in another, diarrhea, in another, headache and yet in another abdominal bloating and gas. Even in the same individual the reactions may vary greatly from time to time.

Some allergies depend on the amount of exposure to a food, beverage, inhalant or chemical. In addition to the amount of the offending food or substance if an inhalant allergen is also extremely high, the total load on the body is increased. Due to the increased total load, many times the body is less capable of handling the other offending food. For example, if you have a wheat allergy and you rotate your diet so you are only eating wheat in any form every four to five days, you may not have any reaction to it. But if you eat a wheat bran muffin for breakfast, whole wheat sandwich with chicken noodle soup for lunch and lasagna/ stuffy nose, hay fever, sinus problems, excessive mucus formation, headache.

Symptoms of Food Allergy:

Mental & Emotions: Mood swings, anxiety, fear, anger, nervousness, irritability, aggressive behavior, depression, hyperactivity, panic attacks, listlessness, confusion, stuttering, poor memory/ concentration, lethargy, speech problems and learning disorders, “binge” eating or drinking, food cravings.

Throat & Mouth: Coughing, sore throat, hoarseness, swelling/pain, sores on for dinner, you may cause a whooping reaction. Recall that most noodles and pastas are made with flour which comes from wheat.

Digestion: Belching, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramps, heartburn, bloating, passing gas, feeling of fullness long after eating.

Activity & Energy: Fatigue, sluggishness, drowsiness, lethargy, lack of energy, apathy, hyperactivity, restlessness, agitation.

Eyes, Ears & Nose: Watery, itchy eyes, blurred vision (excluding vision disorders- far or near sightedness), ear infections, hearing loss, sneezing attacks, runnyongue, gums and lips, increased sinus drainage.

Heart & Lungs: Rapid heart beat or increase > 10-15 beats, irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, chest pain, congestion, asthma, bronchitis, difficulty in breathing.

Muscle & Joints: General weakness, muscle/joint aches and pains, arthritis, stiffness.

Skin: Hives rashes, dry skin, excessive sweating, acne, hair loss, and irritation around eyes.

Other: Excess weight, inability to lose weight, chronic fatigue, dizziness, water retention, insomnia, headaches, genital itch, frequent urination.

Note: Many health conditions may cause some of the above symptoms. Professionals’ medical evaluation is recommended to establish if causes other than food allergy sensitivities are the cause.

Surprisingly, the foods that you are allergic to are the foods that you crave, want and eat the most frequently. This type of allergy is called an addictive allergy. Most people with food allergies or addictions are completely unaware that this process is taking place in their body. If an addicted person misses a meal that would normally include the food to which is allergic, allergic-addictive withdrawal symptoms appear. In order not to experience the discomfort of a withdrawal reaction, a person will continue to eat the food to prevent withdrawal symptoms. There is a third type of allergy in which you have a fixed reaction to a food. Every time you eat it, you react no matter if the food is eaten with another food or if you only eat a small portion.

The five most common foods, which cause food sensitivities, are: eggs, wheat, corn, citrus (oranges) and milk. Other common foods include: peanuts, sugar, chocolate, tomatoes, chicken, beef, coffee, pork and soy.

If you suspect food allergies, keep a food diary and journal of how you feel. Note: any symptoms. If there is any pattern or if you are constantly craving or eating the same foods or food families.

Other methods to help you detect your food allergies include the ELISA food allergy panel (blood testing) and an elimination diet. Some allergy doctors use skin or scratch testing for foods. This method is only about twenty percent accurate. Some physicians do not believe that food can cause various symptoms, but they can.

Once your food allergies are determined, often the suspect foods need to be eliminated from your diet totally in any form for a month or two. Then the foods are slowly reintroduced one at a time. If you continue to get an allergic reaction, eliminate the food altogether. If you do not get a reaction, rotate the food so it is not eaten in any form except every fourth or fifth day. For example, if you drink milk on Sunday, you would not use any dairy products until Thursday or Friday of that week. This gives the body a chance to eliminate and prevent any build-up in your system.

Please beware some foods that do not cause a reaction alone, but may cause a reaction when combined. If you do get a food reaction, according to Doris Rapp, M.D., a good way to help reduce or stop a food reaction is by using Alka-Seltzer Gold Antacid Formula without aspirin (gold foil box) or Alka- Aid. Buffered Vitamin C or esterified Vitamin C in powdered form taken in water helps with a food reaction.

Keep in mind, a deficiency of magnesium causes the mast cells (cells which release histamine) to release more histamine. It is important to keep your level of magnesium up in the body.